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Effects of pollen shortage and self-pollination on seed production of an endangered tree, Magnolia stellata
, Ishida K.
, Tomaru N.
Annals of Botany
, 2005. V. 95. No. 6. P. 1009–1015
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Oxford University Press · firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Aims Pollen limitation is a significant determinant of seed production, and can result from both insufficient pollen quantity (pollen shortage) and quality (mainly relating to self-pollination). For animal-pollinated tree species with large floral displays, pollen limitation may be determined by a balance between increased pollen quantity due to increased attractiveness for pollinators, countered by increased self-pollination due to increased geitonogamy. The contributions of pollen shortage and self-pollination on seed production were quantitatively examined in the natural pollination of an insect-pollinated, dichogamous, endangered tree, Magnolia stellata, which has a large, showy floral display. Methods Manual self- and cross-pollinations were conducted to determine the effects of selfing on seed production. The outcrossing rate was measured using microsatellite analyses of open-pollinated seeds, and the embryo mortality rate caused by self-pollination was indirectly estimated. The frequency of ovule mortality due to pollen shortage was also inferred using the embryo mortality and ovule survival rates from natural pollination. Key Results The average fruit set, seed set per fruit, and ovule survival rate per tree from hand cross-pollination were 1·37, 3·15, and 3·34 times higher than those from hand self-pollination, respectively, indicating that self-pollination causes inbreeding depression for fruit and seed set. The multilocus-outcrossing rate (tm) was intermediate, 0·632, and the primary selfing rate was 0·657. This indicates that frequent geitonogamous selfing occurs. The ovule mortality rate due to pollen shortage and the embryo mortality rate due to self-pollination were estimated to be 80·8 % and 45·9 %, respectively. Conclusions It is concluded that seed production of M. stellata is strongly limited by both pollen shortage and self-pollination. Inefficient beetle-pollination and the automimicry system via asynchronous flowering might be responsible for the high level of pollen shortage and frequent geitonogamy. This is despite a large, showy floral display and the dichogamous system of the species.