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Threatened Pollination Systems in Native Flora of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Methods. Flower visitors and floral traits were determined in the field (12 islands) and from the literature. Associations among floral traits such as sexual expression, flower colour and flower shape were tested. Key Results. Among the 269 native flowering plants, 74·7 % are hermaphroditic, 13·0 % are dioecious and 7·1 % are monoecious. Classification by flower colour revealed that 36·0 % were white, 21·6 % green and 13·8 % yellow. Woody species (trees and shrubs) comprised 36·5 % of the flora and were associated with dioecy and white flowers. Solitary, endemic small bees were the dominant flower visitors and visited 66·7 % of the observed species on satellite islands where the native pollination networks are preserved. In contrast to the situation on the satellite islands, introduced honeybees were the most dominant pollinator (visiting 60·1 % of observed species) on the two main islands, Chichi-jima and Haha-jima, and had spread to satellite islands near Chichi-jima Island.Conclusions. The island syndrome for pollination systems in the Ogasawara Islands was evident in a high percentage of dioecious species, the subdued colour of the native flora and solitary flower visitors on satellite islands. The shape and colour adaptations of several flowers suggested native pollination niches for long-proboscis moths and carpenter bees. However, the domination and expansion of introduced honeybees have the potential for disruption of the native pollination network in the two main, and several satellite, islands of the Ogasawara Islands.