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Pollinarium morphology and floral rewards in Brazilian Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae)
, Koehler S.
Annals of Botany
, 2004. V. 93. No. 1. P. 39–51
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Oxford University Press · firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Aims There is strong support for the monophyly of the orchid subtribe Maxillariinae s.l., yet generic boundaries within it are unsatisfactory and need re‐evaluation. In an effort to assemble sets of morphological characters to distinguish major clades within this subtribe, the pollinarium morphology and floral rewards of representative Brazilian species of this subtribe were studied. Methods The study was based on fresh material from 60 species and seven genera obtained from cultivated specimens. Variation of pollinarium structure and floral rewards was assessed using a stereomicroscope and by SEM analysis. Key Results Four morphological types of pollinaria are described. Type 1 appears to be the most widespread and is characterized by a well‐developed tegula. Type 2 lacks a stipe and the pollinia are attached directly to the viscidium. Type 3 also lacks a stipe, and the viscidium is rigid and dark. In Type 4, the stipe consists of the whole median rostelar portion and, so far, is known only from Maxillaria uncata. Nectar, trichomes, wax‐like and resin‐like secretions are described as flower rewards for different groups of species within the genus Maxillaria. Data on the biomechanics and pollination biology are also discussed and illustrated. In Maxillariinae flowers with arcuate viscidia, the pollinaria are deposited on the scuttellum of their Hymenopteran pollinators. In contrast, some flowers with rounded to rectangular, pad‐like viscidia fix their pollinaria on the face of their pollinators. Conclusions Pollinarium morphology and floral features related to pollination in Brazilian Maxillariinae are more diverse than previously suggested. It is hoped that the data presented herein, together with other data sources such as vegetative traits and molecular tools, will be helpful in redefining and diagnosing clades within the subtribe Maxillariinae.