"Expression error: Unexpected < operator." is not a number.
Pollinators shift to nectar robbers when florivory occurs, with effects on reproductive success in Iris bulleyana (Iridaceae)
, Jin X.-F.
, Wang Q.-F.
, Yang C.-F.
, Inouye D.W.
, 2017. V. 19. No. 5. P. 760–766
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Studies have indicated that florivory and nectar robbing may reduce reproductive success of host plants. However, whether and how these effects might interact when plants are attacked by both florivores and nectar robbers simultaneously still need further investigation. We used Iris bulleyana to detect the interactions among florivory, nectar robbing, and pollination, and moreover, their effects on plant reproductive success. Field investigations and hand pollination treatments were conducted on two experimental plots from a natural population, in which Experimental plot was protected from florivores and Control plot was unmanipulated. The flower calyx was bitten by sawflies for consuming the nectary and three bumble bee species were pollinators. In addition, the short-tongued pollinator, Bombus friseanus, was the only robber when there was a hole made by a sawfly. The bumble bee significantly shortened flower handling time when robbing compared to legitimate visits. Pollinator visitation and seed production decreased significantly in damaged flowers. However, seed production per flower after supplementary hand pollination did not differ significantly between damaged and undamaged flowers. Compared to the Experimental plot, bumble bees visited fewer flowers per plant in a foraging bout in the Control plot. The flowers damaged by florivory allowed B. friseanus shift to a nectar robber. Florivory and nectar robbing collectively decreased plant reproductive success by consuming nectar resources, which may reduce attractiveness to pollinators of the damaged flowers. However, the changes in pollinator behavior might be beneficial to the plant by reducing the risk of geitonogamous mating.