Community studies in pollination ecology in the high temperate Andes of Central Chile. II. Effect of temperature on visitation rates and pollination possibilities
, Armesto J.J.
, Primack R.B.
Plant Systematics and Evolution
, 1985. V. 149. No. 3. P. 187–203 (17).
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer Science+Business Media
Visitation rates and mean numbers of visits per flower per day are determined at three altitudinal levels (2 200–3 600 m) in the high Andes of central Chile from quantified observations of flowers visitors to a total of 134 species of plants, studied over three flowering seasons. Significant altitudinal decreases in the mean no. visits/flower/minute and per day were recorded, with Level III flowers, on the average, being pollinated only about 1/2 as frequently and to as low as 1/4 as frequently in certain months, as Level I flowers. Visitation rates are generally highest in early and mid-summer at all altitudes. The lower visitation rates at the higher elevations are due to lower insect abundance relative to plant resources and lower levels of activity for the insects present, stemming from the generally lower ambient temperatures. Seasonal differences in visitation rates may also be related to differences in insect abundance levels. The total probability of ovule pollination cannot be estimated directly from the pollination rates, because stigmas are probably receptive for longer periods at the higher elevations. When differences in the duration of stigma receptivity are estimated from differences in flower lifelength, the probability of pollination in Level III is not very different from that expected in Level I. However, for some months, the deficit in Level III may still be substantial. These results underline the inherent dangers of predicting pollination possibilities directly from pollination rates. They also suggest that the impoverished pollination conditions assumed in hypotheses predicting higher amounts of self-compatibility at high altitudes might not be justified for all high temperate mountains.