Lunau K./Публикации

From Антэкология ⋮ Anthecology
Jump to: navigation, search
Автор
АВТОР ПУБЛИКАЦИЙ 11
Plant Systematics and Evolution
49
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer Science+Business Media

. 2000. V. 222. No. 1. P. 89–111. Статья
By offering pollen and/or nectar as a food resource, angiosperms exploit flower visitors for pollen transport. Pollen thus acts not only as a means for transportation of male gametes, but also as a food reward for potential pollinators. Many findings provide compelling evidence that pollen acts, in addition, as a visual signal. The present contribution reviews several strategies that angiosperms have evolved to attract potential pollinators to the site of reward. We here consider evolutionary, e
cological, sensory-physiological, and behavioural aspects of flower-pollinator interactions that are correlated with visual signals provided by pollen and pollen-producing organs, or imitations thereof.
Naturwissenschaften
2
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.

. 2006. V. 93. P. 325–328. Статья
Floral colour patterns are contrasting colour patches on flowers, a part of the signalling apparatus that was considered to display shape and colour signals used by flower-visitors to detect flowers and locate the site of floral reward. Here, we show that flower-naïve bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) spontaneously direct their approach towards the outside margin of artificial flowers, which provides contrast between these dummy flowers and the background. If no floral guides are present, the bumbl
ebees continue to approach the margin and finally touch the marginal area of the dummy flower with the tips of their antennae. Whilst approaching dummy flowers that also have a central floral guide, the bumblebees change their direction of flight: Initially, they approach the margin, later they switch to approaching the colour guide, and finally they precisely touch the floral guide with their antennae. Variation of the shape of equally sized dummy flowers did not alter the bumblebees’ preferential orientation towards the guide. Using reciprocal combinations of guide colour and surrounding colour, we showed that the approach from a distance towards the corolla and the antennal contact with the guide are elicited by the same colour parameter: spectral purity. As a consequence, the dummy flowers eliciting the greatest frequency of antennal reactions at the guide are those that combine a floral guide of high spectral purity with a corolla of less spectral purity. Our results support the hypothesis that floral guides direct bumblebees’ approaches to the site of first contact with the flower, which is achieved by the tips of the antennae.
Pohl M.
1
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Watolla T.
1
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Lunau K.
11
Автор антэкологических публикаций

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
2
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer Science+Business Media

. 2008. V. 63. No. 295. P. 295–302. Статья
Bee-pollinated plants are frequently dichogamous: e.g. each flower has a discernable male and female phase, with only the male phase offering a pollen reward. Pollen-collecting bees should therefore discriminate against female-phase flowers to maximise their rate of pollen harvest, but this behaviour would reduce plant fitness due to inferior pollination. Here, we test the hypothesis that flowers use pollen-mimicking floral guides to prevent flower-phase discrimination. Such floral guides resemb
le pollen in spectral reflection properties and are widespread among angiosperm flowers. In an array of artificial flowers, bumblebees learned less well to discriminate between flower variants simulating different flowering phases when both flower variants carried an additional pollen-yellow guide mark. This effect depended crucially on the pollen-yellow colour of the guide mark and on its spatial position within the artificial flower. We suggest that floral guides evolved to inhibit flower-phase learning in bees by exploiting the innate colour preferences of their pollinators.
Journal of Comparative Physiology A
4
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer-Verlag GmbH

. 1995. V. 177. P. 1–19. Статья
Freshly emerged flower visitors exhibit colour preferences prior to individual experience with flowers. The understanding of innate colour preferences in flower visitors requires a detailed analysis, as, on the one hand, colour is a multiple-signal stimulus, and, on the other hand, flower visits include a sequence of behavioural reactions each of which can be driven by a preferential behaviour. Behavioural reactions, such as the distant approach, the close-range orientation, the landing, and the
extension of mouthparts can be triggered by colour stimuli. The physiological limitations of spectral sensitivity, the neuro-sensory filters, and the animals' different abilities to make use of visual information such as brightness perception, wavelength-specific behaviour and colour vision shape colour preferences. Besides these receiverbased factors, there are restrictions of flower colouration due to sender-based factors such as the absorption properties of floral pigments and the dual function of flower colours triggering both innate and learned behaviour. Recordings of the spectral reflection of coloured objects, which trigger innate colour preferences, provide an objective measure of the colour stimuli. Weighting the spectral reflection of coloured objects by the spectral composition of the ambient light and the spectral sensitivity of the flower visitors' photoreceptors allows the calculation of the effective stimuli. Perceptual dimensions are known for only a few taxa of flower visitors.
  • AID1290319317
  • ATPR0
  • Оригинал
Journal of Comparative Physiology A
4
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer-Verlag GmbH

. 1990. V. 166. No. 6. P. 827–834. Статья
Innate behavioural reactions, i.e. reactions of untrained, flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L., B. lucorum L.; Apidae) were observed in flower dummy experiments. It was proven that an innate releasing mechanism responds to optical flower signals: the spectral purity of ‘corolla colour’ was found to be crucial for far attraction toward flower dummies. During the subsequent near orientation, that is when a bumblebee finally reaches a flower dummy, the bumblebee's antennae contact the par
t of highest spectral purity while the bee is still in flight. ‘Guides’ such as ‘stamen patches’ present in the center of flower dummies are used only for near orientation. Flower dummies receiving the greatest number of antennae reactions at the guide were always those with low spectral purity in the surrounding background colour, high spectral purity at the corolla colour and highest spectral purity at the guide colour. In contrast, dominant wavelength and intensity of flower dummy colours had no detectable influence on innate behavioural reactions, while colour contrast had some. These results are interpreted as follows: orientation toward guides is based upon a gradient of centripetally increasing, bee-subjective colour saturation which directs the bumblebee's approach toward the center of the flower dummy where additional factors may contribute to stimulating the landing reaction.
Lunau K.
11
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Unseld K.
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Wolter F.
Автор антэкологических публикаций

Journal of Comparative Physiology A
4
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer-Verlag GmbH

. 2009. V. 195. No. 12. P. 1121–1130. Статья
Many flowers display colour patterns compris¬ing a large peripheral colour area that serves to attract flower visitors from some distance, and a small central, contrastingly coloured area made up by stamens or floral guides. In this study, we scaled down the size of floral guides to detect the minimal size bumblebees (Bombus ler- reslris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) require for guid-ance. We analyzed the approach and the precise contact of the antennal tips with the floral guide of artificial
flowers which precedes landing and inspection. Both bumblebees and honeybees were able to make antennal contact with cir¬cular floral guides which were 2 mm in diameter; bumble¬bees performed better than honeybees and antennated also at floral guides smaller than 2 mm. In discrimination exper¬iments with bumblebees, a minimum floral guide size of 2 mm was required for discrimination between artificial flowers with and without floral guides. With increasing experience bumblebees targeted close to the site of reward instead of making antennal contact with the floral guide, whereas honeybees did not alter their initial behaviour with growing experience. Bumblebees and honeybees spontane¬ously target diminutive floral guides to achieve physical contact with flowers by means of their antennae which helps them to inspect flowers.
Plant Systematics and Evolution
49
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer Science+Business Media

. 1992. V. 183. No. 1. P. 51–65. Статья
In melittophilous plants the colour pattern of the flowers, as perceived by bumblebees, is a gradient of centripetally increasing spectral purity. This pattern serves as a signal for innate flower recognition in naive bumblebees permitting orientation to flowers and landing on flowers. Structures which make up the total signal pattern can include the background (e.g., green leaves), corollas, and stamens or floral guides. How various colour parameters, such as dominant wavelength, intensity, and
spectral purity influence the colour signal pattern of flowers is analyzed. The process of strong absorption of ultraviolet light is shown to be a mechanism for the enhancement of spectral purity in flower guides. The importance of other mechanisms is also demonstrated. The presence of a gradient of centripetally increasing spectral purity in floral colour patterns as perceived by a bumblebee's eyes is demonstrated by a comparison of the spectral reflectance in different parts of the flower and a representation of colour loci in the colour triangle.
Woodcock T.S.
1
Автор антэкологических публикаций

et al. (+4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology
123
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.

. 2014. V. 12. P. –. Статья
This paper comprises Part II of a review of flower visitation and pollination by Diptera (myiophily or myophily). While Part I examined taxonomic diversity of anthophilous flies, here we consider the rewards and attractants used by flowers to procure visits by flies, and their importance in the lives of flies. Food rewards such as pollen and nectar are the primary reasons for flower visits, but there is also a diversity of non-nutritive rewards such as brood sites, shelter, and places of congreg
ation. Floral attractants are the visual and chemical cues used by Diptera to locate flowers and the rewards that they offer, and we show how they act to increase the probability of floral visitation. Lastly, we discuss the various ways in which flowers manipulate the behaviour of flies, deceiving them to visit flowers that do not provide the advertised reward, and how some flies illegitimately remove floral rewards without causing pollination. Our review demonstrates that myiophily is a syndrome corresponding to elements of anatomical, behavioural and physiological adaptations of flower-visiting Diptera. The bewildering diversity of anthophilous Diptera and of the floral attractants and rewards to which they respond allows for only broad generalizations on myiophily and points to the need for more investigation. Ecological relationships between flies and flowers are critical to the survival of each group in many habitats. We require greater understanding of the significance of flies in pollination, especially in the face of recent pollinator declines.
  • AID2656801564
  • ATPR0
  • Оригинал
Lunau K.
11
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Wacht S.
1
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Chittka L.
8
Автор антэкологических публикаций

Journal of Comparative Physiology A
4
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer-Verlag GmbH

. 1996. V. 178. No. 4. P. 477–489. Статья
The innate preferences of inexperienced bumble bees, Bombus terrestris, for floral colour stimuli were studied using artificial flowers. The artificial flowers provided a colour pattern and consisted of a star-shaped corolla and of central colour patches similar to the “nectar guide” of natural flowers. The innate choice behaviour was assessed in terms of the number of approach flights from some distance towards the artificial flowers and the percentage of approach flights terminating in antenna
l contact with the floral guide. The colours of the floral guide, the corolla and the background were varied. It was shown that the innate flower colour preference in bumble bees has two components. 1. The frequency of approaches from a distance is correlated with the colour difference between the corolla and the background against which it is presented. If the corolla colour was constant but its background colour varied, the relative attractiveness of the corolla increased with its colour difference to the background. The colour difference assessment underlying this behaviour on a perceptual basis can be attained by means of colour opponent coding, a system well-established in Hymenoptera. 2. The frequency of antennal contacts with the floral guides relative to that of approach flights cannot be accounted for by colour opponent coding alone. Whether the approach flights are interrupted, or whether they end in an antennal contact with the “nectar guide” is strongly dependent on the direction (sign) of the colour difference, not only its magnitude. The choice behaviour requires a unique perceptual dimension, possibly that of colour saturation or that of hue perception comparable to components of colour perception in humans.
Experientia
1
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.
Springer Science+Business Media

. 1993. V. 49. No. 11. P. 1002–1010. Статья
The colour patterns of angiosperm flowers visited by bees and hoverflies were shown to provide a dual signalling system, giving the flower-visitors visual orientation cues for the initial detection of flowers, as well as for learned discrimination. Pollinators show an innate response to interspecifically uniform colour signals, which enable them to detect flowers and to orient towards the site of reward. Interspecifically diverse colour signals provide pollinators with cues for learned discrimin
ation between flowers of different species.
Burkart A.
1
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Lunau K.
11
Автор антэкологических публикаций

, Schlindwein C.
2
Автор антэкологических публикаций

Journal of Pollination Ecology
123
Журнал с антэкологическими публикациями.

. 2011. V. 6. No. 16. P. 118–124. Статья
The presence of bees is typically accompanied by the humming sound of their flight. Bees of several tribes are also capable of pollen collecting by vibration, known as buzzing behaviour, which produces a buzzing sound, different from the flight sound. An open question is whether bee species have species-specific buzzing patterns or frequencies dependent of the bees' morphology or are capable to adjust their indivudual buzzing sound to optimize pollen return. The investigations to approach this i
ssue were performed in northeastern Brazil near Recife in the state of Pernambuco. We present a new field method using a commercially available portable system able to record the sound of bees during flight and buzzing at flowers. Further, we describe computer linguistical algorithms to analyse the frequency of the recorded sound sequences. With this method, we recorded the flight and buzzing sequences of 59 individual bees out of 12 species visiting the flowers of Solanum stramoniifolium and S. paniculatum. Our findings demonstrate a typical frequency range for the sounds produced by the bees of a species. Our statistical analysis shows a strong correlation of bee size and flight frequency and demonstrate that bee species use different frequency patterns.
  • AID7677473777
  • ATPR0
  • Оригинал