Observations were made on insect visitors to flowers in montane short-tussock grasslands and scrub, and in subalpine and alpine grasslands. New Zealand does not possess native social bees or many other advanced insects, and the flowers were visited by highly variable assemblages of unspecialized insects. The flowers studied were characterized by general pollination systems, only a very few species showing specific floral adaptations to particular pollinators. The general pollination systems are
viewed as an adaptation to highly variable pollinator assemblages; flowers are visited by whatever pollinators are immediately available.